D0072 | Ketamine

Molecular Formula C13H16ClNO
Molecular Weight 237.72
State solid
Clearance The clearance rate of ketamine is high and of around 95 L/h/70kg.[A31885]
Volume of distribution The apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment and at steady-state are 371.3 ml/kg and 4060.3 ml/kg, respectively.[A31889]
Route of elimination Pharmacokinetic studies have resulted in the recovery of 85-95% of the administered dose in urine mainly in the form of metabolites. Some other routes of elimination of ketamine are bile and feces. When administered intravenously the resultant recovery is distributed by 91% of the administered dose in urine and 3% in feces.[L1336]
Protein binding The plasma protein binding of ketamine accounts for 53.5% of the administered dose.[A31887]
Half life The reported half-life in preclinical studies for ketamine is 186 min.[A31883]
Absorption Ketamine absorption is very rapid and the bioavailability is around 93%. After the first pass metabolism, only 17% of the administered dose is absorbed.[A31883] It distributes very rapidly and presents a distribution half-life of 1.95 min.[A31887] The Cmax levels at peak reach 0.75 mcg/ml in plasma and 0.2 mcg/ml in cerebrospinal fluid.[L1336]
Trade names Ketalar
Description General anesthetics


N01AX03 Ketamine

[N01AX] Other general anesthetics



[N] Nervous system

Toxicity Dose Time Species Model Method Action Positive criterion Reference
ROS PRODUCTION increase 197

Pictogram Signal Statements Precautionary Statement Codes

The GHS information provided by 1 company from 1 notification to the ECHA C&L Inventory.

H302+H332 (100%): Harmful if swallowed or if inhaled [Warning Acute toxicity, oral

acute toxicity, inhalation]

H302 (100%): Harmful if swallowed [Warning Acute toxicity, oral]

H332 (100%): Harmful if inhaled [Warning Acute toxicity, inhalation]

P261, P264, P270, P271, P301+P312, P304+P312, P304+P340, P312, P330, and P501; (The corresponding statement to each P-code can be found at the GHS Classification page.)

H302: Harmful if swallowed [Warning Acute toxicity, oral]

H315: Causes skin irritation [Warning Skin corrosion/irritation]

H319: Causes serious eye irritation [Warning Serious eye damage/eye irritation]

H335: May cause respiratory irritation [Warning Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure

Respiratory tract irritation]

P261, P264, P270, P271, P280, P301+P312, P302+P352, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P312, P321, P330, P332+P313, P337+P313, P362, P403+P233, P405, and P501; (The corresponding statement to each P-code can be found at the GHS Classification page.)

  • Glaucoma

  • Hypotonia

  • Visceral pain

  • (+-)-Ketamine (+/-)-2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone (+/-)-2-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone
    (+/-)-Ketamine (.+/-.)-2-(O-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone (.+/-.)-Ketamine
    100477-72-3 2-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-2-methylamino-cyclohexanone 2-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-2-methylamino-cyclohexanone(Ketamine)
    2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone 2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone # 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexan-1-one
    2-(Methylamino)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)cyclohexanone 2-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone 2-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone
    6740-88-1 API0005228 BDBM50044140
    BRN 2216965 C07525 CAS-6740-88-1
    CHEBI:6121 CHEMBL742 CI 581 base
    CI-581 CLSTA 20 Calypsol
    Cetamina Cetamina [INN-Spanish] Cyclohexanone, (.+-.)-
    Cyclohexanone, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)- (9CI) Cyclohexanone, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-, (+-)- Cyclohexanone, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-, (+-)- (9CI)
    Cyclohexanone, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-, (+/-)- Cyclohexanone, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-, (.+/-.)- Cyclohexanone, 2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-
    Cyclohexanone, 2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-, (+-)- Cyclohexanone, 2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-, (+/-)- (8CI) Cyclohexanone, 2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-, (.+/-.)-
    D08098 DB01221 DEA No. 7285
    DSSTox_CID_3187 DSSTox_GSID_23187 DSSTox_RID_76912
    DTXSID8023187 DivK1c_000217 EC 229-804-1
    EINECS 229-804-1 GTPL4233 HMS2272G05
    HSDB 2180 IDI1_000217 J-505587
    KBio1_000217 KETAMINE HCL Kalipsol (Salt/Mix)
    Ketaject Ketalar Ketalar base
    Ketamine (INN) Ketamine Base Ketamine [INN:BAN]
    Ketaminum Ketaminum [INN-Latin] Ketanest
    Ketanest (Salt/Mix) Ketoject Ketolar (Salt/Mix)
    LS-57301 MCULE-4905246871 MLS001331674
    NCGC00159480-02 NCGC00159480-03 NINDS_000217
    NSC 70151 NSC-70151 NSC70151
    Q243547 SCHEMBL16103 SCHEMBL17084881
    SMR000238141 Special K Special K [street name]
    Tekam (TN) Tox21_111703 Tox21_111704
    Vetalar (Salt/Mix) YQEZLKZALYSWHR-UHFFFAOYSA-N cyclohexanone, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-
    dl-Ketamine ketamina ketamine

    DrugBank Name Ketamine
    DrugBank DB01221
    CAS Number 100477-72-3, 1867-66-9, 33643-49-1, 33795-24-3, 6740-88-1
    PubChem Compound 3821
    KEGG Compound ID C07525
    KEGG Drug D08098
    PubChem.Substance 46508295
    ChEBI 6121
    PharmGKB PA450144
    ChemSpider 3689
    BindingDB 50044140.0
    TTD DAP001148
    Wikipedia Ketamine
    DPD 11190

    1. Vuda et al. (2016)