White, G.A.; Thorn, G.D.
|Journal||Pesticide biochemistry and physiology|
A variety of thiophene carboxamide compounds have been synthesized and tested on the succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDC) in mitochondria from a wild-type strain and carboxin-resistant strains of Ustilago maydis (corn smut). The site of action of thiophene carboxamides is identical to that of carboxin (5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-1,4-oxathiin-3-carboxanilide) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone, that is, the succinate-ubiquinone reductase (complex II) span in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. This investigation reveals new molecular structures which are strong inhibitors of wild-type and carboxin-resistant SDCs. The 5-amino analog of the parent anilide, 3-methylthiophene-2-carboxanilide (I), proved to be an especially potent inhibitor of the wild-type SDC (I50, 0.019 μM). Analogs of (I) such as 4′-carboethoxy, 4′-nbutyl, 4′-phenyl, and 4′-benzoyl were negatively correlated in activity to the carboxanilide (I) with respect to resistance level. A number of structures showed considerable selectivity for mutated SDCs from both highly and (particularly) moderately carboxin-resistant SDCs of U. maydis, markedly lowering the resistance level, i.e., the degree of resistance. Thus, in addition to the oxathiins, specific structural groups of thiophene carboxamides can also alleviate or reverse the effect of carboxin-selected mutation with reference to inhibition of the SDC. Of important significance was the finding that molecular selectivity for mutated, carboxin-resistant SDCs can be influenced by replacement of an oxathiin by a thiophene heterocyclic ring as well as by the substitutive group on the amide nitrogen, permitting different categories of mutant types and even mutants within a single category to be distinguished from one another. With all the structural combinations available, it appears quite possible, in terms of inhibition, to overcome any type of mutation in a fungal SDC which arises through selection by carboxin or other carboxamide compounds. A reasonable correlation generally exists between inhibition by thiophene carboxamides of the SDC and sporidial growth of wild-type and carboxin-resistant strains of U. maydis. A permeability barrier to 4′-substituted analogs of (I) was encountered in the wild-type strain but not mutant strains. Excellent protectant activity against bean rust (Uromyces phaseoli) was obtained with the 3′-nhexyl, 3′-nhexyloxy, and 4′-phenoxy analogs of (I).