Gentamicin affects the bioenergetics of isolated mitochondria and collapses the mitochondrial membrane potential in cochlear sensory hair cells.


O'Reilly, Molly; Young, Luke; Kirkwood, Nerissa K; Richardson, Guy P; Kros, Corn? J; Moore, Anthony L

Publication Year 2019
Journal Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Pages 416
Volume 13
PMID 31572129.0
PMCID PMC6753894
DOI 10.3389/fncel.2019.00416

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are widely prescribed to treat a variety of serious bacterial infections. They are extremely useful clinical tools, but have adverse side effects such as oto- and nephrotoxicity. Once inside a cell they are thought to cause mitochondrial dysfunction, subsequently leading to apoptotic cell death due to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here we present evidence of a direct effect of gentamicin (the most commonly prescribed aminoglycoside) on the respiratory activities of isolated rat liver and kidney mitochondria. We show that gentamicin stimulates state 4 and inhibits state 3u respiratory rates, thereby reducing the respiratory control ratio (RCR) whilst simultaneously causing a collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MtMP). We propose that gentamicin behaves as an uncoupler of the electron transport chain (ETC) - a hypothesis supported by our evidence that it reduces the production of mitochondrial ROS (MtROS). We also show that gentamicin collapses the MtMP in the sensory hair cells (HCs) of organotypic mouse cochlear cultures. Copyright ? 2019 O Reilly, Young, Kirkwood, Richardson, Kros and Moore.