D0023 | Chloramphenicol

Molecular Formula C11H12Cl2N2O5
Molecular Weight 323.13
State solid
Protein binding Plasma protein binding is 50-60% in adults and 32% is premature neonates.
Half life Half-life in adults with normal hepatic and renal function is 1.5 - 3.5 hours. In patients with impaired renal function half-life is 3 - 4 hours. In patients with severely impaired hepatic function half-life is 4.6 - 11.6 hours. Half-life in children 1 month to 16 years old is 3 - 6.5 hours, while half-life in infants 1 to 2 days old is 24 hours or longer and is highly variable, especially in low birth-weight infants.
Absorption Rapidly and completely absorbed from gastrointestinal tract following oral administration (bioavailability 80%). Well absorbed following intramuscular administration (bioavailability 70%). Intraocular and some systemic absorption also occurs after topical application to the eye.
Description broad-spectrum antibiotic; antibacterial





S03AA08 Chloramphenicol

[S03AA] Antiinfectives



[S] Sensory organs

S02AA01 Chloramphenicol

[S02AA] Antiinfectives



[S] Sensory organs

S01AA01 Chloramphenicol

[S01AA] Antibiotics



[S] Sensory organs

J01BA01 Chloramphenicol

[J01BA] Amphenicols



[J] Antiinfectives for systemic use

G01AA05 Chloramphenicol

[G01AA] Antibiotics



[G] Genitourinary system and reproductive hormones

D10AF03 Chloramphenicol

[D10AF] Antiinfectives for treatment of acne



[D] Dermatological drugs

D06AX02 Chloramphenicol

[D06AX] Other antibiotics for topical use



[D] Dermatological drugs

Toxicity Dose Time Species Model Method Action Positive criterion Reference
MEGAMITOCHONDRIA 200-300µg/ml 22hr primary culture rat hepatocytes, RL-34,COS-1, IAR-20 induce 292
MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATORY CHAIN COMPLEX ASSEMBLY 50 μg/ml 5 days 143B osteosarcoma cells Blue Native Gel inhibitor 286
MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATORY CHAIN COMPLEX ASSEMBLY 50µg/mL 4 days complex I de novo assembly analysed by BN-PAGE inhibitor 287
MITOCHONDRIAL PROTEIN TRANSLATION 9.8 ± 0.5 μM rat liver mitochondria Mitochondrial protein synthesis assay (The incorporation of [35S]methionine into mitochondrial protein was determined by a filter paper disk assay ) IC50 281
MITOCHONDRIAL PROTEIN TRANSLATION haplo-insufficiency profiling (HIP), a well-validated chemical genomics platform developed in the yeast S. Cerevisiae. inhibitor 288

Pictogram Signal Statements Precautionary Statement Codes

Aggregated GHS information provided by 394 companies from 26 notifications to the ECHA C&L Inventory. Each notification may be associated with multiple companies.

Reported as not meeting GHS hazard criteria by 6 of 394 companies. For more detailed information, please visit ECHA C&L website

Of the 25 notification(s) provided by 388 of 394 companies with hazard statement code(s):

H317 (11.34%): May cause an allergic skin reaction [Warning Sensitization, Skin]

H318 (40.72%): Causes serious eye damage [Danger Serious eye damage/eye irritation]

H350 (48.97%): May cause cancer [Danger Carcinogenicity]

H351 (50.77%): Suspected of causing cancer [Warning Carcinogenicity]

H361 (61.86%): Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child [Warning Reproductive toxicity]

Information may vary between notifications depending on impurities, additives, and other factors. The percentage value in parenthesis indicates the notified classification ratio from companies that provide hazard codes. Only hazard codes with percentage values above 10% are shown.

P201, P202, P261, P272, P280, P281, P302+P352, P305+P351+P338, P308+P313, P310, P321, P333+P313, P363, P405, and P501; (The corresponding statement to each P-code can be found at the GHS Classification page.)

H350: May cause cancer [Danger Carcinogenicity]

P201, P202, P281, P308+P313, P405, and P501; (The corresponding statement to each P-code can be found at the GHS Classification page.)

H303: May be harmful if swallowed [Warning Acute toxicity, oral]

H340: May cause genetic defects [Danger Germ cell mutagenicity]

H350: May cause cancer [Danger Carcinogenicity]

H361: Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child [Warning Reproductive toxicity]

H372: Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Danger Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure]

H373: Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Warning Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure]

P201, P202, P260, P264, P270, P281, P308+P313, P312, P314, P405, and P501; (The corresponding statement to each P-code can be found at the GHS Classification page.)

Organism Test type Route Dose (normalized dose) Effect Source
rat LD50 intraperitoneal > 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg) Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 3, Pg. 390, 1969.
rat LD50 intravenous 171mg/kg (171mg/kg) Journal of Clinical Investigation. Vol. 28, Pg. 943, 1949.
mouse LD50 intravenous 368mg/kg (368mg/kg) Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 3, Pg. 390, 1969.
human TDLo unreported 214mg/kg/10D (214mg/kg) Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 24, Pg. 944, 1974.
infant TDLo intramuscular 250mg/kg/2D (250mg/kg) vascular: change in plasma or blood valume New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 262, Pg. 787, 1960.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal 1100mg/kg (1100mg/kg) Dissertationes Pharmaceuticae. Vol. 14, Pg. 21, 1962.
mouse LD50 intraperitoneal > 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg) Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 3, Pg. 390, 1969.
guinea pig LD50 oral 500mg/kg (500mg/kg) Farmaco, Edizione Scientifica. Vol. 10, Pg. 3, 1955.
guinea pig LD50 intravenous 560mg/kg (560mg/kg) Farmaco, Edizione Scientifica. Vol. 9, Pg. 21, 1954.
rat LD50 intraperitoneal 1811mg/kg (1811mg/kg) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 18, Pg. 185, 1971.
rat LD50 intravenous 339mg/kg (339mg/kg) Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 3, Pg. 390, 1969.
dog LD intramuscular > 101mg/kg (101mg/kg) Journal of Clinical Investigation. Vol. 28, Pg. 943, 1949.
rat LD50 oral > 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg) Drugs in Japan Vol. -, Pg. 740, 1995.
mouse LD50 oral > 7gm/kg (7000mg/kg) Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 3, Pg. 390, 1969.
mouse LD50 oral 1500mg/kg (1500mg/kg) Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 5, Pg. 1, 1955.
mouse LD50 intravenous 110mg/kg (110mg/kg) Journal of Clinical Investigation. Vol. 28, Pg. 943, 1949.
rat LD50 subcutaneous 5gm/kg (5000mg/kg) gastrointestinal: "hypermotility, diarrhea" Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 9, Pg. 445, 1966.
women LDLo oral 400mg/kg (400mg/kg) JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 234, Pg. 149, 1975.
infant LDLo unreported 200mg/kg/4D-I (200mg/kg) Lancet. Vol. 1, Pg. 555, 1986.
rabbit LD50 intravenous 117mg/kg (117mg/kg) Journal of Clinical Investigation. Vol. 28, Pg. 943, 1949.
rat LD50 oral 2500mg/kg (2500mg/kg) Farmaco, Edizione Scientifica. Vol. 10, Pg. 3, 1955.
infant TDLo oral 440mg/kg (440mg/kg) JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 234, Pg. 149, 1975.
child TDLo unreported 250mg/kg/10D (250mg/kg) Clinical Pediatrics Vol. 14, Pg. 499, 1975.
dog LD oral > 300mg/kg (300mg/kg) Journal of Clinical Investigation. Vol. 28, Pg. 943, 1949.
infant LDLo intravenous 30mg/kg/3D-I (30mg/kg) Journal of Pediatrics. Vol. 103, Pg. 487, 1983.
dog LDLo intravenous 150mg/kg (150mg/kg) Journal of Bacteriology. Vol. 55, Pg. 425, 1948.
mouse LD50 subcutaneous 400mg/kg (400mg/kg) "Antibiotics: Origin, Nature, and Properties," Korzyoski, T., et al., eds., Washington, DC, American Soc. for Microbiology, 1978Vol. 1, Pg. 493, 1978.

  • Bacteraemia

  • Conjunctivitis bacterial

  • Conjunctivitis infective

  • Cystic fibrosis

  • Eye infection

  • Infection

  • Meningitis

  • Otitis externa

  • Otitis media chronic

  • Pneumonia chlamydial

  • Psittacosis

  • Typhoid fever

  • (-)-chloramphenicol 2,2-Dichloro-N-((1R,2R)-1,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-nitrophenyl)propan-2-yl)acetamide 2,2-Dichloro-N-(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-(hydroxy(oxido)amino)phenyl)ethyl)acetamide, (1R, 2R)-
    2,2-Dichloro-N-[(1R,2R)-1,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-propyl]acetamide 2,2-Dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]acetamide 2,2-dichloro-N-[(1R,2R)-1,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-nitrophenyl)propan-2-yl]acetamide
    2,2-dichloro-N-[(1R,2R)-2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]acetamide 2787-09-9 4-13-00-02742 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
    56-75-7 66974FR9Q1 AB0015087
    AB00374860 AB00374860-13 AB00374860-14
    AB00374860_15 AB02994 AB1009524
    AKOS005111001 ARONIS23913 AS-14683
    Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-((1R,2R)-2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl)- Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-(.beta.-hydroxy-.alpha.-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl)-, D-(-)-threo- Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl)-, (R*,R*)-(+-)-
    Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl)-, (R-(R*,R*))- Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl)-, (theta-(theta,theta))- Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl)-, D-(-)-threo-
    Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl)-,D-(-)-threo- Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-[.beta.-hydroxy-.alpha.-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl]-, D-threo-(-)- Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4- nitrophenyl)ethyl]-, [R-(R*,R*)]-
    Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-, [R-(R*,R*)]- Acetamide,2-dichloro-N-[.beta.-hydroxy-.alpha.-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl] Acetamide,2-dichloro-N-[.beta.-hydroxy-.alpha.-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl]-, D-threo-(-)-
    Acetamide,2-dichloro-N-[.beta.-hydroxy-.alpha.-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl]-,D-(-)-threo- Acetamide,2-dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-, [R-(R*,R*)]- Ak-chlor
    Alficetyn Ambofen Amphenicol
    Amphicol Amphicol (TN) Amseclor
    Anacetin Aquamycetin Austracil
    Austracol BBC/192 BCP12150
    BDBM23447 BIC0113 BIDD:GT0145
    BPBio1_000135 BRD-K08111712-001-02-7 BRD-K08111712-001-16-7
    BRN 2225532 BSPBio_000121 Biocetin
    Biophenicol C-19742 C-3307
    C.A.F C00918 C11H12Cl2N2O5
    CAF CAF (pharmaceutical) CAM
    CAS-56-75-7 CC-25647 CCG-220031
    CCRIS 3922 CHEBI:17698 CHEMBL130
    CS-2207 CTK4B4374 Catilan
    Ch loramex Chemiceticol Chemicetin
    Chemicetina Chlomin Chlomycol
    Chlora-tabs Chloramex Chloramfenikol
    Chloramfenikol [Czech] Chloramficin Chloramfilin
    Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin) Chloramphenicol (JP17/USP/INN) Chloramphenicol 10 microg/mL in Acetonitrile. Short expiry date due to chemical nature of component(s)
    Chloramphenicol 100 microg/mL in Ethyl acetate Chloramphenicol [INN:BAN:JAN] Chloramphenicol [USP:INN:BAN:JAN]
    Chloramphenicol crystalline Chloramphenicol(Chloromycetin) Chloramphenicol, 98%
    Chloramphenicol, >=98% (HPLC) Chloramphenicol, Antibiotic for Culture Media Use Only Chloramphenicol, BioReagent, suitable for plant cell culture
    Chloramphenicol, Biotechnology Performance Certified, suitable for plant cell culture Chloramphenicol, British Pharmacopoeia (BP) Reference Standard Chloramphenicol, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
    Chloramphenicol, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard Chloramphenicol, VETRANAL(TM), analytical standard Chloramphenicol, certified reference material, TraceCERT(R)
    Chloramphenicol, d- Chloramphenicol, gamma-irradiated Chloramphenicol, meets USP testing specifications
    Chloramphenicol, puriss., 98.0-102.0% Chloramphenicol, tested according to Ph.Eur. Chloramphenicol,(S)
    Chloramphenicole Chloramphenicolum Chloramphenicolum [INN-Latin]
    Chloramsaar Chlorasol Chlorbiotic (Veterinary)
    Chloricol Chlormycetin R Chlornitromycin
    Chloro-25 vetag Chloroamphenicol Chlorocaps
    Chlorocid Chlorocid S Chlorocide
    Chlorocidin C Chlorocidin C tetran Chlorocin
    Chlorocol Chlorofair Chloroject L
    Chloromax Chloromycetin Chloromycetin (TN)
    Chloromycetny Chloromycetny [Polish] Chloromyxin (Salt/Mix)
    Chloronitrin Chloroptic Chloroptic S.O.P.
    Chlorovules Chlorsig Cidocetine
    Ciplamycetin Cloramfen Cloramfenicol
    Cloramfenicol [INN-Spanish] Cloramfenicolo Cloramfenicolo [DCIT]
    Cloramficin Cloramical Cloramicol
    Cloramidina Cloranfenicol Cloroamfenicolo
    Cloroamfenicolo [Italian] Clorocyn Cloromisan
    Cloromissan Clorosintex Comycetin
    Cylphenicol D(-)-threo-2-Dichloroacetamido-1-p-nitrophenyl-1,3-propanediol D(-)-threo-2-dichloroacetamido-1-p-nitrophen yl-propanediol
    D(-)-threo-2-dichloroacetamido-1-p-nitrophenyl-propanediol D(-)-threo-Chloramphenicol D-( -)-threo-1-(p-nitrophenyl)-2-dichloroacetamido-1,3-propanediol
    D-(-)-2,2-Dichloro-N-(.beta.-hydroxy-.alpha.-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenyl-ethyl)acetamide D-(-)-2,2-Dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenylethyl)acetamide D-(-)-Chloramphenicol
    D-(-)-threo-1-(4-Nitrophenyl)-2-dichloroacetamido-1,3-propanediol D-(-)-threo-1-(p-Nitrophenyl)-2-(dichloroacetylamino)-1,3-propanediol D-(-)-threo-1-(p-nitrophenyl)-2-dichloroacetamido-1,3-propanediol
    D-(-)-threo-1-p-Nitrophenyl-2-dichloracetamido-1,3-propanediol D-(-)-threo-1-p-Nitrophenyl-2-dichloroacetylamino-1,3-propanediol D-(-)-threo-2,2-Dichloro-N-(.beta.-hydroxy-.alpha.-(hydroxymethyl))-p-nitrophenethylacetamide
    D-(-)-threo-2,2-Dichloro-N-(.beta.-hydroxy-.alpha.-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenyl-ethyl)acetamide D-(-)-threo-2,2-Dichloro-N-[.beta.-hydroxy-.alpha.-(hydroxymethyl)]-p-nitrophenethylacetamide D-(-)-threo-2,2-Dichloro-N-[beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxy-methyl)-p-nitrophenethyl]acetamide
    D-(-)-threo-2,2-Dichloro-N-[beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-beta-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]acetamide D-(-)-threo-2-Dichloroacetamido-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,3-propanediol D-(-)-threo-2-Dichloroacetamido-1-p-nitrophenyl-1,3-propanediol
    D-(-)-threo-Chloramphenicol D-(-)-threo-N-Dichloroacetyl-1-p-nitrophenyl-2-amino-1,3-propanediol D-(-)-threo-alpha, alpha-Dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl)acetamide
    D-Chloramphenicol D-threo-(-)-2,2-Dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl)acetamide D-threo-(1R,2R)-1-p-Nitrophenyl-2-dichloroacetamido-1,3-propanediol
    D-threo-1-(p-Nitrophenyl)-2-(dichloroacetylamino)-1,3-propanediol D-threo-2,2-Dichloro-N-[beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-4-nitrophenethyl]acetamide D-threo-Chloramphenicol
    D-threo-N-(1,1'-Dihydroxy-1-p-nitrophenylisopropyl)dichloroacetamide D-threo-N-Dichloroacetyl-1-p-nitrophenyl-2-amino-1,3-propanediol D-threo-N-dichloroacetyl-1-p-nitrophenyl-2-amino-1,3-propane-diol
    D00104 DB00446 DSSTox_CID_265
    DSSTox_GSID_20265 DSSTox_RID_75473 DTXSID7020265
    Desphen Detreomycin Detreomycine
    Dextromycetin DivK1c_000544 Doctamicina
    Duphenicol EINECS 200-287-4 Econochlor
    Econochlor (TN) Elase-Chloromycetin Elase-Chloromycetin (Salt/Mix)
    Embacetin Emetren Enicol
    Enteromycetin Epitope ID:114066 Erbaplast
    Ertilen F armicetina FT-0602995
    Farmicetina Fenicol Globenicol
    Glorous Gloveticol HMS2090M15
    HMS2095G03 HMS2269N06 HMS3712G03
    HMS501L06 HSDB 3027 HY-B0239
    Halcetin Halomycetin Hortfenicol
    I 337A IDI1_000544 Interomycetine
    Intramycetin Intramyctin Isicetin
    Ismicetina Isophenicol Isopto fenicol
    Juvamycetin KBio1_000544 KS-00000XTX
    KS-000048O2 Kamaver Kemicetina
    Kemicetine Kloramfenikol Klorita
    Klorocid S LS-225 Laevomycetinum
    Leukamycin Leukomyan Leukomycin
    Levocin Levomicetina Levomitsetin
    Levomycetin Levoplast Levosin
    Levovetin Loromicetina Loromisan
    Loromisin M163 MCULE-7778960570
    MFCD00078159 MLS001055372 MLS001066397
    MLS001332385 MLS001332386 MLS002222155
    Mastiphen Mediamycetine Medichol
    Micloretin Micochlorine Micoclorina
    Microcetina Mychel Mychel-Vet
    Mycinol Myclocin Mycochlorin
    Myscel N-[(1R,2R)-2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-2,2-dichloroace tamide NCGC00091011-01
    NCGC00091011-02 NCGC00091011-03 NCGC00091011-04
    NCGC00091011-05 NCGC00091011-06 NCGC00091011-08
    NCGC00091011-09 NCGC00094620-01 NCI-C55709
    NCI60_002620 NINDS_000544 NSC 16331
    NSC 3069 NSC-3069 NSC3069
    Normimycin V Novochlorocap Novomycetin
    Novophenicol Ocuphenicol Oftalent
    Oleomycetin Opclor Opelor
    Ophthochlor Ophthocort (Salt/Mix) Ophtochlor
    Optomycin Otachron Otophen
    Pantovernil Paraxin Pentamycetin
    Prestwick3_000031 PubChem20321 Q274515
    Quemicetina RKL10087 Rivomycin
    Romphenil Ronfenil Ronphenil
    SAM002589931 SBB057728 SC-18476
    SCHEMBL16111 SMP1_000065 SMR000471851
    SR-01000761450 SR-01000761450-2 SR-01000761450-3
    SR-01000761450-5 ST024743 SW198497-2
    Septicol Sificetina Sintomicetin
    Sintomicetina Sintomicetine R Sno Phenicol
    Sno-Phenicol Soluthor Stanomycetin
    Synthomycetin Synthomycetine Synthomycine
    Syntomycin Tea-Cetin Tega-Cetin
    Tevcocin Tevcosin Thiamphenicol,(S)
    Tifomycin Tifomycine Tiromycetin
    Tox21_111306 Tox21_400061 Treomicetina
    Tyfomycine U-6062 UNII-66974FR9Q1
    Unimycetin Veticol Vice ton
    chioramphenicol chloramphenicol s1677

    DrugBank Name Chloramphenicol
    DrugBank DB00446
    CAS Number 125440-98-4, 15318-45-3, 2787-09-9, 56-75-7, 7384-89-6, 85666-84-8
    PubChem Compound 5959
    KEGG Compound ID C00918
    KEGG Drug D00104
    PubChem.Substance 46505318
    ChEBI 17698
    PharmGKB PA448927
    ChemSpider 5744
    BindingDB 50028502.0
    TTD DAP001356
    Wikipedia Chloramphenicol
    DPD 16112|8578

    1. Vuda et al. (2016)